VERSION 2015-01-02 (ENGLISH)


  1. purpose
  2. structure
  3. sanctioning body


  1. General
    1. changing rules
    2. related documents
    3. rules/ procedures/ formats
    4. Compulsory figures and tricks
    5. classes
    6. safety

  2. Initiating
    1. organiser
    2. sanctioning information
    3. Competition field
    4. (game/contest-)formats
    5. time schedule (event)
    6. materials
    7. personnel
    8. competitors
    9. judges

  3. Starting
    1. delays
    2. pilots’ meetings
    3. supervisory committee
    4. time schedule (game/contest)
    5. heats
    6. flight order
    7. ground crew
  4. Setting-up
    1. equipment
    2. Competitors music recordings for performances
    3. stage-in reporting
    4. entering the field
    5. time-schedule (performance)
    6. delay
    7. early start
  5. Flying
    1. ground crew
    2. flight preparation
    3. “IN” call
    4. coaching
    5. wind speed/check
    6. safety calls
    7. “OUT”-call
    8. Leaving
  6. Scoring/ Judging
    1. judging criteria
      1. compulsory figures and tricks
      2. routines
      3. deductions
    2. judging
    3. scoring
    4. calculation
    5. publishing
    6. combining scores
  7. Evaluating
    1. protests
    2. debriefing
    3. reports


  1. precision compact
  2. precision standard
  3. ballet compact
  4. ballet standard
  5. short combined
  6. freestyle


  2. Standard calls (fixed; in English)
  3. Stage-inn reporting
  4. wind-check
  5. judging
  6. Margins of error
  7. line-judging
  8. ground crew (fellow competitors)
  9. draw
  10. Combining results; 100% system
  11. Publishing scores and results


  1. Definitions


  1. purpose
  2. The purpose of the rules is to assure to every competitor a fair, honest and enjoyable competition. They are (or should be) an agreement between flyers, officials, organisers about how a competition during a sport kite flying event should be run and judged. They assume “sportsmanlike behaviour” from all competitors and officials. .

    In general, the “Rules” describe the terrain of the Chief Judge, which is everything that is happening both on and off the flying field(s) regarding the competition, throughout the event.

  3. structure
    1. rules; explanation; comment
    2. The rules (the text of rules) in this book are sometimes accompanied by Explanations (between [ ] )

      The purpose of Explanations is to help officials make decisions in accordance with the rules and should not be altered.

      Comments (referred to by a number between {} ) are there to inform. They cannot be changed but additional comments may be added to, without disturbing or amending the original text. Comments are not part of the rules. All comments are found in addendum A.

      When viewed together, rules, explanations and comments will reveal the evolutionary processes that will doubtless follow over the course of time .

    3. procedures
    4. “Procedures” are chapters which describe ways to act on particular occasions to get certain things done in a good way.
      [like “Wind-check” or “Stage-in / stage-out”] If so declared they may be changed by the Chief judge.

    5. formats
    6. Many sports offer a variety of competitive formats built around the same basic activity. Although the forms sport kite competition can take are numerous, some have survived over the years. When new forms are developed, to avoid the need to change many separate parts of the Rules book, the idea of the “format” is used.

      A “Format” describes a particular game/contest. It specifies timing, parts and factors to calculate results..
      [This way changing or adding formats can be done without the need of changing rules throughout the rule book]

      “Formats” are considered to be rules.

  4. sanctioning body
  5. This Rules Book is based on the assumption a Sanctioning Body exists.

    The Sanctioning Body is the person, or group of persons, that can set these rules make and change regulations, make decisions on sanctioning events, issue licences to officials and competitors etc., etc. {1}


  1. General
    1. changing rules
    2. Rule-changes will go into effect not sooner than 60 days after competitors could have taken notice of these changes. For compulsory figures and tricks that have been changed or varied under clause a.3 below, the minimum period of notice shall be 60 days too.{2}

      1. Rules
        1. For Rule changes see copyright notice at the end of this book.
        2. Rule-changes will not be made for specific events . Compulsory figures and tricks can only be added for specific events.
        3. For specific events, sanctioning bodies may authorise the chief judge to introduce compulsory figures and tricks not within the current lists. Such approvals will be valid only for the specific events for which they have been approved and will not constitute a rule change within the meanining of items 1 & 2 above
    3. Procedures
    4. Procedures may be changed by the Chief Judge, but only for a specific event; Procedures may be changed by the Sanctioning body, for a specific event. Changes in procedures will go into take effect not sooner than 30 days after competitors could have taken notice of these changes. {2}

    5. related documents
    6. This Rules book should be part of a set of documents, dealing with the different relations between flyers/ competitors, organisers, officials, sponsors, public etc.

      The following documents are assumed to be in use (the names used here are only examples):

      1. a “Charter”
      2. The Charter should set out (as a minimum) the relations between flyers (members) and the way they are organised in the Sanctioning body;

        make reference to the Rules as well as the Regulations;

        the necessity of using the Rules and Regulations

        the way (who, when, how) the Rules and Regulations can be changed, as well as the time between publishing and using changes , all within the limits set in these Rules as well as the time between publishing and using changes;

        describe the basics for an independent “judging structure”

        and refer to the “Sanction Form”

      3. a “Sanction Form”

      4. This deals with the relations between organiser and sanctioning body (on behalf of the flyers). It should - state the responsibilities of flyers/competitors; organiser; sanctioning body and officials.

        declare that the use of the Rules and Regulations is mandatory. describe the way the Chief judge for events is selected

        describe the process used for selection of the other judges for an event .

      5. the “Regulations”

      6. At least stating:

        1. who (and in what way) competitors and officials are licensed;
        2. possible divisions of competitors into classes based upon capability.
        3. the way to combine scores; results (see Procedures J)
        4. the way that any ranking (over more than one game/contest, competition or event) is calculated.

    7. rules/ procedures/ formats
      1. a rule contains in general:
        1. a description of a situation
        2. how and/ or by whom such a situation is recognized
        3. possible actions to be taken
        4. who decides which of those actions should be taken

      2. a procedure describes how to perform a certain action, in order to make a decision as described in a rule possible
      3. a (game/contest-)format is a rule describing the form a game/contest can have by stating the following properties of a game/contest:
        1. parts
        2. use of specific materials and equipment
        3. specific time schedule, duration
        4. the relative values of the judging criteria
        5. specific penalties and deductions
        6. All within the constraints given in these Rules

    8. Compulsory figures and tricks
    9. A compulsory figure or a trick is a (short sequence of manoeuvres) designed to test specific flying skills. Compulsory figures and tricks are defined both by diagrams and descriptions, according to Procedure B. Each Compulsory Figure or trick, as defined by their diagrams and descriptions shall be treated as a procedure. (see A.1.a.3 ) But the standard way of drawing diagrams, and writing descriptions are to be considered as “Rules”

      1. diagram
      2. all the diagrams of compulsory figures and tricks shall be done in a similar way.

      3. description
      4. all descriptions shall clearly explain:

        -position of the starting and ending points of the figure in standard system of coordinates

        -all matters of timing within the figure that can not be accurately shown in the diagrams.

        -basic elements.

        (see “Compulsory figures and Tricks” book)

      The lists of compulsory figures and tricks , as well as their possible divisions are to be treated as “Rules”

    10. classes
    11. if the Regulations describe classes of -licensed- competitors, then the only classes acceptable for sanctioning are those based on capability. In case a game/contest or competition is open to more than one class, all rules shall apply. If certain rules, procedures and formats (or parts thereof) are restricted to a certain class, no competition shall be held with a “mix of rules”, that is a combination of rules and procedures stated to be applicable to different classes

    12. safety
    13. Any competitor who, during the event, knowingly or wilfully causes unsafe situations (these are situations in which people might be injured by kites, lines or by the actions of competitors) shall be disqualified for that event by the Chief Judge this includes the withdrawal of any scores already awarded to the competitor (s) committing the breach of safety]. The Chief Judge shall thoroughly investigate any such incident, and personally take testimony from eye-witness(es) and the flyer, before deciding [sport kite flying is not a dangerous sport and would take exceptional -and wilful- actions to make it unsafe.]

  2. Initiating
    1. organiser
    2. the organiser is a person (or group of persons) having responsibility for everything that is necessary to make an event happen. These include the overall time schedule, providing the field; providing or arranging for the infrastructure of the competition and may also include providing officials other than Judges

    3. sanctioning information
    4. The information on the sanction form shall include (at least)

      1. starting and ending time of the event
      2. the game/contest format(s) selected
      3. the classes (if applicable)
      4. the place where the event is to be held
      5. name(s) and addresses of the organiser or the person(s) appointed to inform competitors and officials before and during the event
      6. the quality and properties of the flying field(s) and event-terrain
      7. the way competitors are selected
      8. the equipment used for playing music for ballet and other formats:
        1. a clear statement regarding the availability of sound equipment (tape, tape cassette, compact disc, mini-disc player, and/or similar )
      9. the way in which competitors can subscribe for the event (including deadlines, subscribing fee etc.)
      10. the actions to be taken in case of emergencies (emergency telephone numbers, agreed procedures etc., responsible persons)
      11. Immediately after sanctioning of the event and not later than 30 days in advance all this information is send to potential competitors and known officials.

        If, at that time, selection of competitors and officials is not completed, this information is send (again) to all competitors and officials as soon as they are known.

        The Sanctioning body shall withdraw sanctioning if these demands are not met [ see also “rule changes”]

    5. Competition field
    6. [see also drawing of “Field Setup”]

      All references to the Supervisory Committee in this section shall be read as meaning the Supervisory Committee OR Chief Judge before a the Supervisory committee has been chosen

      If the Supervisory Committee finds or discovers that the field does not meet the requirements set out in items a to e below the Competition shall not commence or shall be postponed until such issues have been rectified to the satisfaction of the Supervisory Committee.

      1. size
      2. For flying with two-line kites the minimum size of the flying field shall be:

        -105 x 105 m for teams

        - 95 x 95 m for pairs

        - 85 x 85 m for individuals

        For flying with four line kites each of the minimum sizes can be reduced by 10 m

      3. shape
      4. square or any other shape, as long as a square of the required dimensions would fit in.

      5. properties
      6. -sufficiently flat to avoid tripping or falling over of competitors and without any objects, or plants etc. that could catch a line or kite.

        -horizontal, sufficient to make a fair judgment about horizontal flight paths close to the ground)

        -without deep water.

        -without obstruction, so that walking and running around, as well as landing and starting a kite shall be possible without hindrance

        -firm underfoot

      7. markings
      8. -public boundary

        the public boundary shall be marked and/ or fenced in such a way as to reasonablystop the public from entering the flying field. Where possible a distance of 5 m between the public boundary and the boundary of the flying field is recommended. If, in the opinion of the Chief Judge, this fencing is not adequate to impede the public from entering the flying field the Supervisory Committee can suspend the event until the problem is solved.

        -edge of flying field (also called the ‘Red-flag’ or ‘disqualification boundary’)

        If this boundary is the same as the public boundary a straight fence or tape/ line on poles with a height of about 0.70 m above the terrain shall be used. If it is a separate boundary any straight, continuous marking can be used, as long as all of it is visible from any place on the field.

        -warning boundary (also called ‘Yellow flag’ or ‘warning boundary’)

        this boundary shall be marked with a suitable marking (on the ground to avoid any risk of tripping over) between 3 and 5 m inside the flying field boundary, visible from any place on the field.

        If the shape of the field is not square two markings shall be put in place, one 5 m inside the flying field boundary, one in a square shape, sized as if a square field of the required dimensions would be in use.

      9. Stage-in/ stage-out area:
      10. directly alongside the disqualification boundary of the flying field a continuos area at least 5 m wide, and at least 50 m long will be designated the Stage-in/ Stage-out area. The markings for the public boundary will be on the outside of this area.

    7. (game/contest-)formats
    8. the choice of game/contest formats is to the organiser of an event. S/he shall ask advice of Sanctioning body and/ or Chief judge.

      The chosen game/contest-formats shall be stated on the Sanction Form.

      Only game/contest formats as stated in these Rules are allowed.

    9. time schedule (event)
    10. -the organiser shall state (on the sanction form, as well as in the information to competitors) the earliest starting date/ time and the latest ending date/ time of the event as a whole.

      -no competitor or official is obliged to start before starting time, or continue after ending time with the event; only a unanimous decision of both competitors and officials shall change these starting and ending dates/ times, if requested by the organiser.

      [this refers to the event as a whole, not the separate games/contests]

    11. materials
    12. the following materials shall be available during the whole event unless weather or tide make that impossible

      -appropriate markings around the field (see “field”)

      -flags for all line judges on the field (one yellow, one red each)

      -a certified wind-meter for each field director (see also “wind check procedure”)

      -at least two stopwatches for each field director

      -an adequate sound system if music is to be used. {3}

      -an adequate means of communication between field director and sound engineer

      -if the weather makes that necessary a sheltered (against rain, wind, heat or cold) place with enough space to hold general pilots meetings

      The Supervisory Committee shall postpone the proceeding of the event if these demands are not met.

    13. personnel
    14. required personnel :

      -three judges for each game/contest

      -a field director on each field

      -a sound engineer if music is used

      If this personnel requirement is not met/satisfied , the game/contest shall be cancelled by the Chief Judge.

      preferred personnel

      although the personnel mentioned above is the minimum, it is not the optimum for good events. So the following people should be available also:

      1. an announcer( if an event is meant to be interesting for the public, this is a necessity)
      2. two more judges for each game/ contest
      3. a pit boss
      4. a scorer
      5. a group of lines judges; preferably sufficient in number to have two on each field, and the possibility to change line judges regularly so that line- judges do not have to remain on the field too long.

        [ 90 minutes without a break should be the maxium]

        The Chief Judge can suspend the proceeding of the event if these demands are not met

    15. competitors
      1. the Sanction Body shall describe, in the Regulations, the way competitors are licensed for sanctioned events, and the criteria for determining any ability-based classes
      2. potential competitors shall follow the procedure to subscribe for a specific event as mentioned on the sanction form
      3. the organiser can exclude competitors from the event if they have not followed these procedures
      4. the chief judge can allow competitors to fly at the event, even if they are excluded by the organiser, but only if there is strong evidence the competitor did everything possible to follow all procedures to subscribe, in time and has a valid license.
      5. the competitor (in the case of pairs and teams,this means at least one member of each pair or team) shall attend both the general as well as the game/contest-specific pilots-meetings. At their own risk (of missing information) competitors can may ask another person to represent them at the general pilots meeting, but no person may represent more than one competitor
      6. The Chief Judge shall disqualify any Competitor, who fails to attend

        i) the general pilots meeting

        ii) any other briefing announced at the general pilots briefing, unless the competitor can not be blamed.

    16. judges
      1. the Sanctioning Body shall describe in the Regulations the way in which Officials shall be licensed.

        [If such Regulations do not exist officials will be appointed by the Chief Judge for the event]

      2. the Regulations shall state that all officials except the judges can be licensed by the Chief Judge for a specific event.
      3. shadow-judges: (people who need experience as a judge, but are not licensed) will be allowed onto the field to “act as judges” at the discretion of the Chief Judge ; they will work as and be treated as judges, but their scores will not form part of the total used in calculating a competitors overall result. The number of shadow judges on the field shall not be more than the number of judges in a game/contest, minus one.

  3. Starting
    1. delays
    2. any delay shall be announced to all competitors and officials as soon as they are known to the organiser.

    3. pilots’ meetings
    4. a General pilots’ meeting shall be held as soon as (after the stated starting date/time) the Chief judge has checked and approved field(s), materials etc. etc.

      -the first action to be taken at the pilots meeting is to form the supervisory committee. this shall be initiated by the Chief judge

      -the list of competitors shall be finalized

      -the selected compulsories (if applicable) shall be announced

      -the flight order shall be announced (if not done before, the “random draw” shall be done; see “F”)

      -the officials shall be introduced

      -the time-schedules will be given

      - It will be made clear where and when to hand over music recordings

      -any other relevant information will be given and explained

      -there will be an opportunity for competitors and officials to ask brief and pertinent questions

      the Chief Judge will instruct the head judge for each contest to hold a short briefing for pilots immediately before the start of each game/contest , to confirm the flight order, the selected compulsories, the time schedule of the game/contest format etc.

    5. supervisory committee
      1. the supervisory committee for an event shall be formed by one competitor, one judge (not being the chief judge) and (a representative of ) the organiser.
      2. the flyer’s representative will be elected by the competitors at the beginning of the first pilot’s meeting, the judges representative by the judging panel before the first pilot’s meeting.
      3. the supervisory committee will keep the same composition during the event with the following exception: if an advice or a decision of the supervisory committee is needed over a decision of a head judge, and this head judge has been chosen as representative of the judging panel s/he shall be replaced (for that advice or decision only) by another judge

    6. time schedule (game/contest)
    7. No game shall last for more than four (4) hours; counting the time between the first and last start. If more than four (4) hours have past since the first start the Head Judge will announce the game to be cancelled.

      [this time includes any delays!]

      {no fair competition is possible if judges have to be concentrated for more than this length of time.}

    8. heats
      1. if for a game the time between start and finish, given the number of competitors present multiplied by the allowed maximum time for a performance, will be more than 4 hours, then heats shall be held
      2. even if the calculated time is less than 4 hours, but the number of competitors present is 20 or more heats shall be held
      3. the decision to hold heats shall be taken not later than on the first pilots meeting
      4. the final shall have no more than 12 competitors
        1. 2/3 of the number of competitors in the final shall be those who ranked highest in the heats, to be chosen before the next
        2. 1/3 of the number of competitors in the final, they shall be those who scored highest in the heats, as far as they are not already in the final
      5. If the event is based on combining scores from more than one game/contest heats can be limited to just one game/contest, while the final can be hold over more game/contests.

    9. flight order
    10. flight order shall be random. The “draw” can be done by the Chief Judge before the first pilots-meeting . Where this has not been done, has to be changed because of changes in the number of competitors or is not possible it shall be done during the first general pilots-meeting The Chief Judge will make only the necessary changes to the flight order, to avoid problems for competitors who participate in more than one game/contest.

    11. ground crew
      1. each competitor shall arrange for a ground crew
      2. (if all competitors agree, the “procedure for ground crewing by fellow-competitors” can be used to do so)

      3. the number of people in a ‘ground crew’ shall not be more than two people more than the number of flyers in a performance, with a maximum of six

  4. Setting-up

    1. equipment
      1. initial
        1. choice
        2. -any object that behaves like a kite; one for each competitor/ member of pair or team

        3. mandatory properties
          1. each steering line shall have a minimum length of 15 m
          2. the kite (including bridal; excluding steering lines) shall not be heavier than 1 kg
          3. the lift-generating surface shall not be more than 2 m2
          4. the largest dimension all-over not more than 10 m

        4. changing
        5. any equipment change (of allowed/ approved equipment) can be made during an officially announced break or pause of more than one minute (as stated in rules and procedures)

        6. repair
        7. kites can be repaired any time, but during a performance only with the materials available in the flying field and/or stage-in area.

    2. Competitors music recordings for performances
      1. the music will be handed over (as explained during the first pilots meeting to the Field Director or Sound Engineer) during the last Pilots meeting before the game/contest the music is meant for (t his could be the first pilots' meeting!)

      2. Competitors are entirely responsible for the quality and playability of their record that they provide for their performances. The Sound Engineer will play the music as presented. The competitor is then obliged to fly to that music No exception will be permitted unless it can be clearly shown that the recording belongs to another competitor or the used equipment is not working properly.

    3. stage-in reporting

      each competitor shall be in the stage-in area in time for their performance, following the Stage-in procedure

      1. The Head Judge can disqualify competitors if they are not present and ready to enter the field when the Field Director signals for their entrance on the field.
      2. the Head Judge shall allow competitors, who are late, to fly only if:
        1. the competitors attended the pilots meetings AND
        2. cannot be held responsible for the delay.

    4. entering the field
    5. -the Field director will signal the competitor to enter the field from the stage-in area in a appropriate manner.

      -s/he will start measuring the “performance-time” as soon as the competitor could have acknowledged the entering signal. This will be the “Start” of the performance.

      -the competitor will enter the flying field, carrying kites, lines and other equipment, assisted by the ground crew if necessary.

    6. time-schedule (performance)
    7. any time-schedule for a performance (as stated in a game/contest-Format) shall have the following specification:

      1. a set-up time (preparation time ) at the beginning of the performance of a minimum of 2 minutes
      2. a time to prepare before each compulsory (if flown separate) of minimum 30 seconds
      3. a minimum time of 60 seconds to prepare before a routine if flown after compulsories
      4. these minimum times will overlap if more than one of the above applies.

    8. delay
    9. if the head judge announces a delay (fi in finishing the judging procedures), the field director will inform the competitor(s). As soon as the judges are ready, the field director will inform the competitor(s) about the delay and they then will have again a minimum preparation time as mentioned above.

    10. early start
    11. if a competitor wants to start a compulsory or routine, while there is still more than 15 sec. of the preparation time left, s/he shall ask the field director to check whether the judges are ready, and wait until the field director confirms this by calling “JUDGES ARE READY”. (according to “Procedure Standard Calls”) There will be no time added to the preparation time.

  5. Flying
    1. ground crew
    2. the members of the ground crew shall position themselves, evenly spread as directed by the competitor or in such positions as to enable them to provide prompt assistance if called upon to do so, over the downwind half of the flying field until their assistance is needed. Only the competitor shall inform and signal the ground crew during the performance (see also “coaching”)

    3. flight preparation
      1. the competitor is allowed to practice any move, manoeuvre etc. during preparation time.
      2. if requested by the head judge (forwarded to the competitor by the field director) the competitor will perform a “centre-window-test” consisting of flying a horizontal low traverse from left to right (as far to the right and left as possible) as well as a large “infinity-figure”. Flying this test will elongate preparation time by 30 seconds.

    4. “IN” call
    5. The in -call is given clearly at the beginning of each compulsory and each routine by

      1. the competitor if the start of compulsory or routine is before the end of the allowed preparation time
      2. by the field director at the end of the allowed preparation time, if the competitor failed to do so at that point

    6. coaching
    7. no coaching in any form is allowed during the performance. The Field Director or Head Judge shall disqualify a competitor if it is clear s/he acted upon any information specifically given for that purpose by others during the course of that performance.

    8. wind speed/check
      1. general
        1. Competition will be postponed, according point D, Recess, if the wind is less than 1 m/s or more than 11 m/s
        2. these limits can be set (in the Regulations) differently for different ability classes within the above given range.

          The minimum shall then not be set higher than 2 m/s; the maximum limit not lower than 9 m/s.


        3. wind checks will be performed by the Field Director. The Field Director alone decides whether the wind speed is between the limits.
        4. The Field Director will announce the outcome of the windcheck loudly and clearly so that both the competitor and the judges can hear.

      2. requests
        1. The Head Judge can ask for a wind check during preparation time (and between performances.)
        2. competitors can ask for a wind check anytime during their performance until one minute before the end of the maximum time for a routine.
        3. A Competitor may not request a further wind check until the result of the previous wind-check has been declared.

      3. checks
        1. If a wind check is done during a performance, and the wind speed is not between the set limits the following actions will be taken:
          1. if there is more than one minute to go to the next “IN” no action will be taken by the Field Director except informing competitor and judges about the outcome
          2. if there is less than one minute to go to the next “IN” call: the Field Director will call “BREAK” and an official break of one minute will be announced by the field director. During this break no wind check will be done. After this minute has passed the competitor will call “IN” (or the Field director will do so instead)
        2. if the wind check is done during a routine: the Field Director will call “BREAK” . It is then up to the competitor to either stop or continue flying. If the competitor stops flying an official break of one minute is announced by the field director. During this break no wind check will be done.
          After this minute the competitor :
          1. begins again with the routine if less than the minimum time for the routine, as stated in the game-format, has passed
          2. resumes flying the routine, with a remaining time of the difference between minimum and maximum time for the routine as stated in the game-format.

      4. recess
        1. if three times during a performance the wind has gone outside the set limits as measured by the field director a “Wind Recess” is announced by the Head Judge directly after this third occurrence. The Wind Recess will last at least 5 minutes, longer periods will be a multiple of 5 minutes.

        2. [Explanation: each wind recess will be fixed to 5; 10; 15; 20 minutes and so on. See also “Weather”]

        3. If the Wind recess is announced to be not more than 5 minutes, competitors and judges will stay on the field.
        4. If the Wind recess is announced to be 10 minutes or more, the competitor will report back on the field not later than at the end of the Wind Recess, and will be given a maximum of 90 seconds more to begin again the compulsory or routine.

  6. weather
    1. The Head Judge can postpone or cancel a game:
    2. if it takes a competitor more than three times the maximum allowed time to finish the performance, but only if caused by repeated Wind Recesses
    3. Either the Chief Judge or a majority of the judging panel for that game can cancel or postpone a game:
    4. If the weather is so extreme, it does not allow a fair and honest competition.

      [Extreme conditions are: very variable wind speeds, around the set limits; heavy and continuous rain, hail or snow; or repeated, fluctuations in wind-direction (more than 90 degrees in three minutes) even if this is caused by a combination of a specific wind direction and nearby buildings, lines of trees etc.]

  7. safety calls
  8. the Field Director shall stop the performance (by calling “STOP”; according to Procedure “Standard Calls”) for the following reasons:

    1. if persons, not being competitors, officials or ground crew, enter the field AND are in danger to be hit by kites, or if the competitor is seriously hindered.
    2. After the problem is solved the competitor can restart the compulsory or routine, after the minimum preparation time.

    3. if competitors make it impossible for the field director to do a wind check. The Field Director will not finish the wind check; the competitor has to resume the routine and finish within the time left of the routine.
    4. If the competitor crosses the red-flag or disqualification boundary at a height of less than 10 m. while flying a kite. The Field Director shall use the signal(s) given by the Line Judge(s) to decide or based on hers/his observations if there are no line judges The competitor shall be disqualified for that game/contest.
    5. if a kite or lines crosses the red-flag or disqualification boundary the Field Director shall decide, using the signal(s) given by the Line Judge(s), if line judges are on the field .. The competitor shall be disqualified for that game/contest..
    6. if a competitor clearly is no longer in control of the kite. The Head Judge will decide whether the competitor can restart or resume the routine or compulsory, in which case the minimum preparation times apply. Provided that the competitor or his kite have not crossed a red safety boundary.
    7. The competitor shall stop flying if s/he considers that any person on or outside the field could be in danger of being hit by kites or lines on or over the competition field or by the competitor. If the cause is anything else than the competence of the competitor to fly the kite, and the kites or lines of the competitor, or the competitor did not cross the red-flag or disqualification boundary, the competitor can restart the compulsory or routine if the call was justified in the opinion of the majority of the judges on the field. [ this may happen if, for example, another kite or its line(s) are flying over the the competition field and there is a risk of lines being cut in the event of a collision of kites or lines ]

      Any official and/ or the competitor shall stop the performance if there is a clear risk of lightning.

    8. “OUT”-call
    9. the competitor will call “OUT” clearly at the end of each compulsory and each routine

      the field director will call “OUT” clearly at the end of the allowed time for the routine, if the competitor has not done so already.

    10. Leaving
    11. the competitor will leave the flying field, carrying kites, lines and other equipment, assisted by the ground crew immediately after the last out-call of hers/ his performance.

      The field director can disqualify the competitor for the game/contest, if s/he wilfully or knowingly leaves the field in such a way as to hinder or impede the next competitor.
      [considered to be unsportsmanlike conduct ]

  9. Scoring/ Judging
    1. judging criteria
    2. The judging criteria describe the way competitors can gain a higher score, and as such describe also the way judges should judge.

      1. compulsory figures and tricks
        1. Execution
        2. this will be the only judging criterium for compulsory figures. All moves as depicted in the diagram, and described in the description shall be flown as accurately as possible. No difference in the scoring will be made based on the type of kite used. Greater accuracy in executing the figure will result in higher scores. Of equal importance are

          1. the resemblance of the flown figure with the diagram (as far as a 2D diagram can resemble 3D flight)
          2. the way corners, lines, curves etc. correspond to the length, angle and size as described
          3. accuracy of placement in the wind-window and the overall size/proportions of the figure as depicted in diagrams
          4. the way angles and rotations along the three axis of the kite correspond to those described [mainly applicable to tricks] >

          All compulsory figures and tricks are allowed to be flown “mirrored” around a -imaginary- vertical line at centre window.
          [it is not requested to inform FD or judges before !]

        3. Basic elements
        4. It is not possible to obtain a score above zero if none of the basic elements as described are not recognisably flown. Points will be deducted, as described at article ... “margins of error”, in respect of each basic element that is not perfectly flown.

      2. routines
      3. In evaluating routines, judges will consider the following criteria, awarding a separate score on the score sheet for each Content, Execution and Choreography -

        1. Content: this includes, but is not restricted to . . .
          1. variety
          2. the more variety in the routine in

            • -tricks, manoeuvres
            • -patterns
            • -wind-window use
            • -spacing
            • -synchronisation; timing;
            • -etc.
            • the higher the score.
              [Repeating the same moves is no reason to deduct, but uses time that might better be used showing something else.]

          3. degree of difficulty/ skill required

          4. Routines demonstrating a high degree of difficulty and skill are more likely to attract a higher score than routines which contain little difficulty, are simple in content and demand only basic skills from the flyer. In teams games/contests, the size of a team can contribute to the degree of difficulty/skill required, depending on the manoeuvre performed and, where appropriate, shall be scored accordingly.[The type, make, or model of kite will not, in itself have any bearing on the score ( It’s not what you use, it’s the way that you use it)].

          5. complexity
          6. if the way in which each move forms a successive chain of events, leaving the competitor little room for errors, or opportunity to improvise, or to “rethink the routine” the routine can be called “complex”. More complex routines will score higher.

          Variety and degree of difficulty and complexity each will contribute to the Content score, according to the game/contest format

          [These scores should be reflected in the final single “Content”-score awarded by the judge, however Judges are not required or expected to undertake complex mental calculations on the field. ]

        2. Execution this includes, but is not restricted to . .
          1. accuracy.
          2. routines shall score higher if flown more accurate

            “small” accuracy: the way in which curves, angles, straight lines resemble well made curves, angles, straight lines.

            “medium” accuracy: the way circles, squares, traverses, resemble well circles, squares, traverses etc. Also the accuracy of keeping a certain distance (where appropriate) to the other team or pair member(s) (spacing)

            “overall”accuracy: the way in which a competitor flies more or less complex manoeuvres ,also of patterns [see definitions], by teams or pairs

          3. timing
          4. the accuracy of being at a certain place or performing a certain move , at a certain time as suggested by the music, by other parts of the routine, or by the relative position of other team or pair flyer(s)

          5. synchronisation
          6. the accuracy of moving the kites (within a pair or team) in the same way, with proper timing appropriate and/or precise co-ordination of actions

        3. Choreography/ Design
        4. In routines, both with or and without music the overall concept/design, as done before the actual flying, as well as recognised in the actually flown choreography is the “ingredient” that changes a routine from a series of moves into a cohesive entity. Routines in which the following factors are clearly identifiable and are working together are more likely to score higher than those where these elements are not recognised

          1. flow/ unity
          2. the routine has no obvious breaks, or pauses, although each separate move can be recognised, the one goes into the other in a smooth, well chosen manner, the whole routine seems to be a unity

          3. music used
          4. the way in which the concept of the music is enhanced and/ or contrasted (contrary to showing a kind of indifference in the routine while following the music). The actions of the kite(s) and the music selected should come together in harmonious unity to form a synergy where the the manoeuvres flown reflect and complement the mood, pace, tempo of the and feel of the music. Such a routine is likely to receive a high score for choreography. Conversely, if the manoeuvres performed by the kite(s) show little, if any, relevance to the chosen music, or vice versa, the music becomes nothing more than incidental accompaniment. Such a performance is unlikely to get a high score for choreography

          5. balanced choice of moves/ tricks/ patterns etc.
          6. in routines without music: the way in which the variety and complexity of the routine are integrated into a balanced whole

          7. style (-elements)
          8. -in all routines: the way in which similar moves are used to give a different expression to the routine

            [ for example: by using both the open, light, wide spacing of the kites of a team, and, contrary, the close, ‘threatening’ spacing the same ‘element’ is used to give different impressions. Done with more moves this will set a certain style to the routine]

            -in routines where other items (“props”) are allowed: the way in which the use of all items (including “kite” and “flying”) result in a recognisable, overall style.

          {5} {Comment:}

          Judges may give scores for each separate item (like ‘small accuracy’ or ‘music-use’) mentioned, but only one, “integrated” score for each “content”; “execution” and “choreography” is required on the score sheet.

      4. deductions
      5. all deductions will be done by reducing the score for a compulsory or routine by a (or the sum of) deduction percentage. These percentages are part of the format descriptions, but stay within the limits mentioned here

        [Explanation: no complicated calculations will be done. Just adding all percentages marked by the judges ]

        deductions (as a fixed percentage) are allowed for:

        1. Obvious non-activity of a kite on the ground, but only if timed by the field director or judges, for longer than 45 seconds. After 45 seconds a new period of inactivity will be timed. (This can occur more than once during a routine.)
        2. To be decided by the majority of the judges,

          Maximum deduction 15 %. (of Execution)

        3. Improper beginning or ending of a routine (see definitions).
        4. To be decided by the majority of the judges.

          Maximum deduction 10 %. (of Choreography)

    3. judging
      1. judging starts at any “IN” call, and ends at any “OUT” or “STOP” call
      2. judges will stay as close to the competitor as possible, but not closer than 3 m.
      3. it is the responsibility of the competitor to allow the judges enough space to watch the routine from the best possible spot. No restart or resuming the compulsory or routine is allowed if the competitor complaints about hindrance by the judges, if the judges kept at least the prescribed distance.
      4. In any game/contest, only the scores from the judges who have judged ALL competitors will be taken into account.

    4. scoring
      1. all scores will be done on a scale from 0 - 100, in whole numbers; with the exception of tricks, which will be scored on a scale of 0 - 50 in whole numbers.
      2. all scoring, writing notes, marking etc. will be noted after the “OUT” call or after a “STOP” call from the Field director or competitor.
      3. all scoring procedures will be followed even if a competitor is disqualified. But if the D.Q.. is kept the final score for that competitor in that game will be 0 (zero))
      4. scoring will be done without taking ability classes into consideration

        A unanimous decision of the supervisory committee can exclude a judge from the judging panel, but only

        1. if there is a complaint from the Head Judge AND
        2. if there is serious doubt whether a judge followed the set rules and procedures to conclude the scoring AND
        3. there is clear prove this influences the fairness of the competition.
    5. calculation
      1. only calculation-methods approved by the Chief judge will be used

      2. for each competitor, and for each set of scores (of the compulsory figures and tricks, the content, the execution, the choreography) the result will be calculated. [Unless specifically stated at the first General Pilots’ meeting, the highest and the lowest separate scores will not be dropped] A minimum of three judges' scores will be kept.

      3. for each competitor the result for a game will be calculated by multiplying each separate score with the appropriate factor, according to the game/contest Format and add them, then round off that figure. The result will be a whole number between 0 and 100 (both 0 and 100 included)

    6. publishing
      1. The Chief Judge will decide which scores and results to publish during the course of any competition. S/he will announce which scores will be published during the first pilots meeting

      2. It will normally be considered that Judges agree to their names being published alongside the scores that they have awarded. If any judge (including the Chief Judge) objects, no other judges may be identified [however a decision not to publish judges names with their scores should always be the exception rather the rule] and scores and results will at least be published without links to the names of the judges,

    7. combining scores
      1. [combining scores is an issue also to be dealt with in the Regulations.]

        The Regulations shall contain the following:

      2. If scores of different games during one event are to be combined to select an “overall winner” for that event or that combination of games the following shall be taken into consideration:

        1. no scores from different ability-classes shall be mixed.

        2. pairs shall not change their members during all games used to calculate the overall score

        3. teams can change only less than 20% of their members during all game/contests used to calculate an overall result (the 20% change based on the average number of persons in a team as they appear in all the games of which the scores are combined)

      3. if results of precision-games and ballet games are to be combined only combinations with ballet-standard and one of the precision formats should be considered. Both the ballet and precision score shall have the same weight in calculating the “overall” score.

      4. [the selection of relative values (factors) of the different scoring criteria in the given formats is based on these possible combinations, and on emphasis in flying abilities (technique)]

      5. If scores of games are to be combined to select an “overall winner” for a competition (over more than one event) or used for ranking the following shall be taken into consideration:

        1. no scores from different ability-classes shall be mixed.

        2. the Sanctioning body shall be responsible for administration involved, not the judges of the game/contests.

        3. If the results of game/contests held over more than one day have to be combined, preferably the “100% procedure” should be followed. [see procedures section J]

  10. Evaluating
    1. protests
    2. Any protest shall be submitted

      1. in writing, as soon as possible, to the Chief judge (if it is something outside a game) but without hindering ongoing game/contests!

      2. To the Head Judge for the game/contest if the protest involves, or is likely to involve a request to re-fly. Ideally, the protest should be presented to the head judge on the field before the end of that game/contest. The judges will then meet on the field at the end of the game/contest and if the protest is upheld by the judges the competitor lodging the protest may be given an opportunity to re-fly.

      3. If the protest is not upheld, the competitor who protests can appeal to the Chief Judge.

      4. if a decision made by the Chief judge is not regarded as satisfactory, the supervisory committee can be asked for a decision by the competitor. A decision made by the majority of the supervisory committee is final, unless the Supervisory Committee grant leave to appeal to the Executive Committee of the sanctioning authority. .
        [leave to appeal to the Executive Committee of the sanctioning authority should be given only in extreme or exceptional circumstances likely to require formal clarification of the rules and/or regulations.

    3. debriefing

    4. the organiser shall provide a sheltered place available to hold the debriefings.

      1. at least one, general debriefing should be held, starting not later than half an hour before the closing time of the event! All officials and competitors are requested to attend that meeting.

      2. All officials and competitors are required to attend that meeting unless granted an exception by the Chief Judge. If a majority of the judges and/ or the competitors of a game/contest request so, the Head Judge shall hold a debriefing just after the game/contest has ended.

    5. reports

    6. the Chief Judge will prepare a report, including the list of judges, the reasons for postponing or cancelling game/contests, and the names of those disqualified for safety reasons not during a game/contest. This report will be included in the information send by the organisation to the sanctioning body and Chief judge. afterwards The sanctioning body will publish report(s) together with results


In all formats that include “compulsories”, a “compulsory”can either be a compulsory figure or two (2) tricks.

Unless stated otherwise a list of 6 compulsories can be announced at least 30 days before the start of an event from which the to be flown compulsories are selected not later than at the first briefing of the day the game will be flown.

  1. precision compact
    1. parts:

      1. a routine with a minimum flying time of 2 minutes and a maximum flying time of

        1. 5 min for teams

        2. 4 min for pairs and individuals

      2. 4 compulsories, flown during this routine; these four will be announced at least 30 days in advance.
        a zero score for a compulsory is given if it is flown “to late”

        [ if the order is 1,2,3, and flown is 1,3,2 nr 2 is scored zero (0)]

    2. time schedule for preparations: maximum

        2 min setting-up for individuals
        3 min setting-up for pairs/teams
    3. scoring factors:

    4. scoring factors for the routine:

      compulsories (average) 0.4
      content 0.1
      execution 0.3
      choreography 0.2

  2. precision standard
    1. parts:

      1. 3 compulsories,.

      2. a zero score for a compulsory is given if it is flown “to late”

        [ if the order is 1,2,3, and flown is 1,3,2 nr 2 is scored zero (0)]

      3. a (separate) routine with a minimum flying time of 2 minutes and a maximum flying time of

        1. 5 min for teams

        2. 4 min for pairs

        3. 3 min for individuals

    2. time schedule for preparations: maximum

        2 min setting-up for individuals
        3 min setting-up for pairs/teams
        45 sec. before compulsories (two tricks)
        90 sec before routine
    3. scoring factors:

    4. scoring factors for the routine:

      compulsories (average) 0.4
      content 0.2
      execution 0.3
      choreography 0.1

  3. ballet compact
    1. parts:

      1. a routine with music and a minimum flying time of 2 minutes and a maximum flying time of

        1. 5 min for teams

        2. 4 min for pairs and individuals

        3. two pieces of music can be handed over by the competitor. Choice will be made during preparation time, but not later than 2 minutes before the (re-)start of the routine

    2. 3 or 4 compulsories, flown during this routine; these four, selected from the lists of compulsory figures and tricks (containing not more than 10 figures and 15 tricks) specifically meant for this format, will be announced at least 30 days in advance.

    3. a zero score for a compulsory is given if it is flown “to late”

      [ if the order is 1,2,3, and flown is 1,3,2 nr 2 is scored zero (0)]

    4. time schedule for preparations: maximum:

        3 min setting-up for individuals
        4 min setting-up for pairs/teams
    5. scoring factors:

    6. scoring factors for the routine:

      compulsories (average) 0.3
      content 0.1
      execution 0.3
      choreography 0.3

  4. ballet standard
    1. parts:

      1. a routine with music and a minimum flying time of 2 minutes and a maximum flying time of

        1. 5 min for teams

        2. 4 min for pairs and individuals

        3. two pieces of music can be handed over by the competitor. Choice will be made during preparation time, but not later than 2 minutes before the (re-)start of the routine

    2. time schedule for preparations maximum:

        3 min setting-up for individuals
        4 min setting-up for pairs/teams
    3. scoring factors:

    4. scoring factors for the routine:

      content 0.3
      execution 0.3
      choreography 0.4

  5. short combined
    1. parts:

      1. 3 compulsories.

      2. a zero score for a compulsory is given if it is flown “to late”

        [ if the order is 1,2,3, and flown is 1,3,2 nr 2 is scored zero (0)]

      3. a (separate) routine with music, with a minimum flying time of 2 minutes and a maximum flying time of

        1. 5 min for teams

        2. 4 min for pairs and individuals

        3. two pieces of music can be handed over by the competitor. Choice will be made during preparation time, but not later than 2 minutes before the (re-)start of the routine

    2. time schedule for preparations maximum:

        2 min setting-up for individuals
        3 min setting-up for pairs/teams
        45 sec. before compulsories (two tricks)
        90 sec before routine
    3. scoring factors:

    4. scoring factors for the routine:

      compulsories (average) 0.3
      content 0.2
      execution 0.2
      choreography 0.3

  6. freestyle


  2. The explanation of the grid and the diagrams and descriptions, the lists of compulsory figures and tricks, as well as their diagrams and descriptions can be found in a separate “Compulsory figures and Tricks Book”

  3. Standard calls (fixed; in English)
    1. by the field director:

      1. TIMING

      2. (these calls will always be made when applicable)

        during preparation time as well as during the routine:

        1. “HALF”

        2. if half the time allowed for a routine is still available (not to be used during preparation time)

        3. “ONE MINUTE”

          if there is one minute to go (either for preparation or to fly) the field director will perform a wind-check if a call from the competitor is made IMMEDIATELY after this call

        4. “FIFTEEN”

        5. if there is fifteen seconds to go (either for preparation or to fly)

        6. “JUDGES ARE READY”

          1. after a delay

          2. after the request of the competitor to start early

        7. “IN”

        8. at the end of preparation time (if the competitor did not call it before)

        9. “OUT”

        10. at the end of the allowed time for the routine (if the competitor did not call before)

      3. FLYING
        1. “STOP”

        2. for any -safety- reason (as mentioned in the rules)

        3. “O.K.”

        4. after a wind-check, if the wind-speed is within the set limits

        5. “BREAK”

        6. after a wind-check, if the wind-speed is outside the set limits

    2. By the competitor:
        1. “IN”

        2. at the beginning of a routine or compulsory

        3. “OUT”

        4. at the end of a routine or compulsory, or if the competitor decides to stop after a wind-check

        5. “STOP”

        6. for safety-reasons (as mentioned in the rules)

        7. “WIND-CHECK”

        8. if the competitor wants the field director to perform a wind-check

  4. Stage-inn reporting
    1. it is the responsibility of the competitor to report to the stage-in/ stage-out area in time (to enter this area as soon as there is a place available)

    2. unless decided otherwise during the General Pilots’ meeting, the stage-in/ stage-out area will be used in the following way:

    3. the first competitor will use one half of the area to prepare kites and lines, the second the other half. As soon as a competitor has cleared her/ his half after completing the performance the next competitor will use that half. {so the “odd” competitors will use the one half, the “even” competitors the other half}

    4. if a Pit boss has been introduced at the general pilots meeting, the competitor will follow the instructions of the Pit boss, while being in the stage-in/ stage out area

  5. wind-check
    1. wind-meters
      1. hand-held (preferably one that does not need to be pointed into the specific wind-direction)

      2. -keep it as high as possible

        -set the stop-watch (for 15 seconds)

        -count the number of times the wind is outside the limits; three times outside limits 15 s OR if it is outside the limit for more than 5s. the conclusion is “Average wind speed” is outside the limits.

      3. Stationary wind meter:

      4. the Chief judge has to approve its place (within or on the public boundary) and height (not more than 5 m). The readings should be available for the Field Director immediately either by a large display, readable from any place on the field, or by suitable means of communication between Field Director, and some one who can read the display. Basically the way to do the windcheck is the same as with the hand held meter.

  6. judging

    1. the judges will stay close to the competitors, but not closer than 3 m.

    2. they will (try to) keep their eyes on the kite(s) during judging

    3. they will ignore the appearance, behaviour (unless it is ‘unsafe’ behaviour) etc of competitors

    4. they will make no comments to competitors about their judging, scores etc. during pilots-meetings and during the game

    5. apply “margins of error” as described below, based on the standard measurements of the ‘grid’

  7. Margins of error
    1. Routines and compulsory figures will (probably) never be flown perfectly! Judges will apply deductions in percentages for the “non-perfect” parts the following way: the percentages for the deductions mentioned here will, where applicable, be added and that total percentage will be deducted. Writing down these percentages and calculation on the score sheet is not mandatory, but if done it might very well help the judge in explaining hers or his appreciation of compulsory or routine to the competitor.

    2. "Margins of error" are defined as:

      1. for deviations from the flying path, as depicted in the diagram, if the nose of the kite is within an area the width of the kite wide, this would still be considered acceptableof relative positions of circles in the figure: place of one center not shifted more than the radius of that circle, with a maximum of three kite-widths

      2. of relative positions of parallel straight lines: no more than one kite width change in the relative distance, as depicted in the diagram

      3. of simultaneous moves (team/ pair) no greater delay between the first kite moving and last kite moving of about 0.5 s.

      4. of the specific places of kites relative to each other [like in “all kites of the team are forming a horizontal line”]: a possible deduction because of inaccuracy will be based on the percentage of kites that is ill-placed, not on the absolute number of kites

      5. of requested stops of any kind: a minimum time of about 0.2 s.

      6. of landings: no forward movement just before landing takes place.

    3. For individual compulsories (to be applied to the basic elements)
    4. a Straight lines
      1 for deviations from “straight” bigger than half a kite-width 10%
      2 for deviations from direction for each 5 degrees 10%
      b Closed curves (other than circles):
      1 "corners" in stead of arcs 10%
      2 Not closed (in three dimensions!) 20%
      c Circles
      1 "corners" in stead of arcs 10%
      2 Not closed (in three dimensions!) 10%
      3 No circle shape 20%
      d Tricks
      1 Entree or exit more than 15 degrees off: 10%
      2 Turning angel more than 15 degrees off 10% (to be judged on each turning axis) 10%
      3 for keeping a position, either of the kite itself or the place in the wind window shorter than prescribed 10%
      e Landings
      1 Two points landing: only one point: 50%
      2 Two points landing: second point after more than 2 seconds 10%
      f place on the grid
      1 for each deviation of 5 degrees (either vertically or horizontally): 10%
    5. For pair and team compulsories (to be applied on basic elements)
    6. The deductions mentioned for individual compulsories to be applied in the following way: for each kite making the error divide the deduction by the number of pair or team members.

      1. Parallel lines: more than half a kite with difference in distance10%

      2. Relative place of a kite compared to the other kite(s) as prescribed: more than half a kite-size 10%

      3. Relative timing:

      4. 1 For moves at the same time (prescribed synchronicity); clearly noticeable 10%
        2 For moves at the same time (prescribed); more than 2 seconds off 20%
        3 For moves at the different times (prescribed); clearly no rhythm 20%

  8. line-judging
    1. During preparation time:

    2. -at the request of the competitor line judges will raise a yellow flag if the kite flies close to the DQ-boundary (but a red if it flies over!)

    3. During compulsories and routines:

    4. -a Yellow flag if the competitor flies over the Warning Boundary, or crosses it her/ himself. Unless decided differently during the general pilots meeting, the line judge will also sound a short whistle

      -a Red Flag if the competitor crosses the DQ-line, or if kites and/ or lines cross the DQ-line at a height of less than 10 m.

  9. ground crew (fellow competitors)
  10. Only if the competitors agree (and to be decided by the Chief judge) the following system for ground crewing can be used to make sure everybody has enough time to prepare, and has to stay on the field as short as possible, outside the performance.

    To do so the Stage-inn/ stage-out area is divided into two; one part for the odd-numbered competitors (for both In and Out), the other for the even numbered. (numbers according to the flying order)

    -the last odd-numbered competitor will assist number 1; the last even numbered will assist number 2

    -nr 1 will assist nr 3 ; nr 3 will assist nr 5

    -nr 2 will assist nr 4

    and so one

  11. draw
  12. the draw shall be done randomly. (This can be easily done with a computer, numbered slips of paper etc.)

    At the request of a competitor the order can only be changed to avoid a possible conflict of participating in more than one game at -almost- the same time.

  13. Combining results; 100% system
  14. This system is NOT a Rule. The Sanctioning body and organiser(s) of events are strongly advised to use this system if the results of games flown on more than one day are to be combined to obtain an “overall” result. The advantage of this system is that influences of very different circumstances, or differences of general level of judging are minimised, leaving a better view on actual flying/ competing abilities.

    For each game the results will be recalculated as follows: the winner will get 100 points; the results of all other competitors are multiplied by a factor of (100/ (actual winners score))

    The recalculated results of all games will be used to calculate the final results; either by adding or by taking the average; with or without dropping best and/or worst -recalculated- results of games

  15. Publishing scores and results
  16. the following scores can be published during the event:

    1. the separate scores for:

      1. the compulsory figures and/or tricks

      2. the routine

        1. content

        2. execution

        3. choreography

    2. the total of the applied deductions

    3. the total score (results)

    The Chief Judge will decide which scores and results to publish during competition.

    Scores and results are published on at least one place, which place is made known to competitors during the first pilots meeting, and are marked “preliminary” until Head Judges and Chief Judge have checked and approved the calculations.

    All mentioned scores will be published afterwards; the organiser will be responsible for sending this publication to competitors and judging panel.

    Final results of a game/contest will always be published as soon as possible after the end of that game/contest.


  1. Definitions
  2. [only meant for this rules book!]

      1. competition

      2. one or more games, of which scores are combined in any way; either during one event, or over more events.

      3. competition area

      4. the terrain which the organiser has available for the competition, including field(s), training area(s), meeting place(s) etc.

      5. competition field:

      6. the area within the public boundary, included the stage-in and stage-out area

      7. competitor

      8. an individual, a pair or a team, taking part in a game

      9. compulsory figure

      10. a short series of ‘moves’ accurately depicted and described, to test certain flying skills of a competitor

      11. event

      12. one or more competitions held during one or more (consecutive) days, by one organiser.

      13. event terrain

      14. terrain available to the organiser during the event

      15. flying field:

      16. the area in which flying (for the competition or practice) is allowed

      17. format

      18. set of specified rules and procedures that describe a game

      19. four/ two line kites

      20. kites with two or four steering lines (kites with three steering lines are, for competition, considered to be the same as four line kites)

      21. game:

      22. a contest between a selected group of pilots, following a prescribed form (format), with a specific type of kite.

        [fi precision compact (the format) for two-line kites (specific type of kite) for “masters” (selected pilots)]

      23. heats

      24. separated parts of a game, to be held if the number of competitors for a game is too large, or the running time of a game is too long.

      25. improper beginning:

      26. of a routine with music, a beginning of this routine (lasting no more than about 15 seconds) that shows no clear relation with the music in any way

      27. improper ending

      28. of routines, an ending (lasting about 15 seconds) that shows no clear relation with the routine so far in any way;

        of a routine with music, an ending of this routine (lasting about 15 seconds) that shows no clear relation with the music in any way

        If a routine is broken off because of (technical) problems with the kite(s) or with flying it will be regarded as an improper ending

      29. official

      30. someone appointed by the sanctioning body, chief judge, organiser to perform a certain task at an event

      31. pattern

      32. like in drawing, painting, tiling: a new image made out of smaller (almost) equal parts by repeating, mirroring, shifting (with kites both in space and/ or time!)

        and like in music, with rhythm, a theme etc.

      33. performance:

      34. all actions of the pilot needed to be ‘in the game’, on the flying field. including bringing in kites, preparation, flying etc.

      35. primitive

      36. movement of a kite as a result of a relatively short steering action, like a straight line, curve, corner, (short) trick.

      37. routine

      38. a set of primitives, moves and manoeuvre.

      39. sanctioning body

      40. the person, or group of persons, that can change rules and regulations, as well as decide on sanctioning events, license officials and competitors etc., etc. In general part of or based on a kiting/ kite flyers organisation.

      41. stage-in/ stage-out area

      42. part of the competition field, used to store and prepare equipment by a competitor just before, during and just after the performance.

      43. steering line

      44. one of the lines to the kite, that can be moved -almost- independently from the other line(s) in order to change the angle of attack and position of the kite.

      45. Trick

      46. A series of moves, turns and stalls of the kite, introduced and controlled by the flyer, where position within the wind window is of little importance relative to the actual moves made.

    1. preferably, this the Sanctioning Body does so with the full agreement and support of all flyers and officials

    2. sending them notice of amendments to competitors just 30 or 60 days before is not good enough insufficient notice and is therefore not acceptable.

    3. At least the possibility to play cd’s; dvd’s; and a connection for mp3-players (“aux”). Sound should be audible and loud enough on the whole field, which depend much on wind direction and place on the field (-s edge). See “Preferred field setup”

    4. suggested: for “starters” both reductions; for experienced flyers only the reduction in the lower range

    5. this is an attempt to describe an analysis of what could be discriminated in “flying a routine” and to make the judging of it more objective. The “content; execution; design”-split can be described shorter in “what, how, why”; to be judged is: what is flown, how well is it done, and why are certain moves selected at certain times -to form one, unified, logical, ‘good’ routine


It is allowed to copy the “Rules” book; the “Compulsory basics” book and both “Compulsory” books or parts of them under the condition this copy right note is always included.

Use for kite competitions is allowed, but only if the complete books are used.

Any change of these books is prohibited; additions are allowed (as mentioned in the Rules) provided it is made clear these additions are not part of the original books or texts.

Revised editions will be issued every two years; the next one is planned for 2017-01-02..

Suggestions and ideas are welcomed, e-mail to

End copyright note.